Mushrooms, Vitamin D and More Food Facts

Harry Hirsute

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Apr 12, 2006
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I didn't know this ...

Mushrooms make vitamin D in sunlight.

Most people are aware that the human body makes vitamin D in response to sunlight. Less known is the fact that mushrooms, even picked ones, can perform the same feat - which means that eating mushrooms that have been exposed to sunlight can be an excellent way to supplement your "D" levels.

In the summer of 2004, mycologist Paul Stamets discovered that the level of vitamin D in freshly picked, indoor- grown shiitake mushrooms rose from 110 IU (international units) to an astonishing 46,000 IU per 100 grams when the mushrooms were placed outdoors in the sun for just six hours with the gills facing up (when the gills were facing down, the level rose to 10,900 IU).

This means that eating just one gram of sun-treated shiitake - about one tenth of one mushroom - would give you 460 IU, close to the FDA's recommended daily dose of 400 IU, and about half of Dr. Weil's recommended 1,000 IU.

In his book, Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World, Stamets concluded, "(In) populations where vitamin D is seriously deficient, sun-exposed dried mushrooms can help address a serious health issue."
http://www.drweil.com/drw/u/ART02935/Four-Unexpected-Food-Facts.html
 

Last edited:

Xania

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Harry, you are full of really useful information - thankyou!:thanks:
 

scorpiotiger

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wow, that is really interesting. wonder what the gills do.. when you think about it, the gills face downward in a normally growing mushroom.. so normally they wouldn't get sunlight, right? It is interesting that they would absorb so much?

but, what a delicious way to get your vitamin D.
 

scorpiotiger

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doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.01.085

Kinetics of the conversion of ergosterol in edible mushrooms

Viraj J. Jasinghea, Conrad O. Pereraa, , , and Shyam S. Sablanib
aDepartment of Chemistry, Food Science and Technology Program, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543, Singapore
bDepartment of Food Science and Nutrition, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 34, Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Oman
Received 27 September 2004; revised 6 December 2005; accepted 17 January 2006. Available online 17 March 2006.


Abstract

Kinetics of conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 has been investigated in cultivated edible mushrooms. It was observed that the rates of conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 were varied in different types of mushrooms. Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) showed the highest conversion rate followed by Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and Abalone (Pleurotus cystidus) whereas the lowest conversion rate was observed in Button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). Both initial moisture content and temperature of irradiation influenced the conversion of ergosterol, and a 2 × 2 factorial design was used to study this influence. It was shown that the conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 followed zero-order kinetics, where the rate constant varied with temperature according to the Arrhenius equation (K0 = 7.32 s−1; Ea = 51.5 kJ mol−1). Vitamin D2 yields from Shiitake mushrooms with respect to temperature of irradiation (T) and moisture content of the mushrooms (M) can be calculated from the equation:


D2=-91.3+2.25*T+71*M.
the equations says that the more moisture (M), the more D2. Also, the higher the temperature of irradiation (T), the more D2 created. However, I can't tell from this study what the range of temperature and moisture was..

but still, I guess the more moisture content of the mushroom, the more D2 that can be created for a set temperature.
 

Iggy Dalrymple

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Apr 9, 2006
wow, that is really interesting. wonder what the gills do.. when you think about it, the gills face downward in a normally growing mushroom.. so normally they wouldn't get sunlight, right? It is interesting that they would absorb so much?
I wonder if this might be a clue that the earth emits some miniscule amount of UV rays?
 

scorpiotiger

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Mushrooms in general seem to be a "superfood". power food.

so.. I am going to post my "secret" recipe for mushroom spaghetti sauce.

ingredients:
  • first.. go to the grocery store and buy plenty of mushrooms. at least a lb.
  • tomato paste - a couple of cans. I buy organic tomato paste.. besides knowing that it isn't gmo.. it tastes MUCH better. really. a big difference. not so for everything, but tomato paste.. yes.
  • tomato sauce.. one 8 oz can. you will mainly use the paste.. but some people to add some sauce anyway.
  • also, garlic, (or garlic powder).
  • Italian seasoning (easy, and you can use it in so many things),
  • fennel (optional).
  • red wine (optional)
  • I use ground turkey, but, ground meat (or no meat) would be fine.
  • olive oil (hey, this is italian.. you must use olive oil)
instructions:
  1. wash mushrooms. then slice. rinse again to make sure they are clean.
  2. cook ground meat (if you are using it), drain, and put aside.
  3. heat the pan, put a little oil oil in.. heat, then put in the sliced mushrooms and sprinkle with salt. toss them around a bit, then cover the pan. You want to keep the liquid.. and there will be some liquid. The heat and salt reduces the mushrooms and produces a lot of "mushroom liquid"
  4. when mushrooms are cooked (and smell good), add tomato PASTE. the tomato paste will blend with the mushroom liquid to make sauce. if you need to.. add another can of tomato paste. you can add the sauce if you want more of a tomato type sauce. Depends on how many mushrooms and how thick you like your sauce. this is an individual thing.
  5. crush a couple of cloves of garlic and add (or add garlic powder)
  6. add a tbsp. Italian seasoning.
  7. optional: add a dash of wine
  8. optional: add a tsp of fennel ... you will get a bit of an italian sausage taste with this. probably better to skip this the first time you make it.
  9. add ground meat if you cooked it (in step 2)
  10. cover and simmer at low for at least 20 minutes. longer if you have time.
you will have a sauce with a LOT of mushrooms.. and the sauce will have a bit of a more mushroom flavor because of the tomato paste and mushroom liquid.

this is good with pasta.. but you don't have to serve this with pasta.. you can serve it over plain chicken breasts. with some mozarella

my husband likes it with cottage cheese. (strange, I know.. but I tried it, and it is pretty good).

and .. a good healthy combo. tomatoes, mushrooms, garlic, oregano, olive oil, mineral salt (if you use mineral salt). what's not to like? ;) :cool:
 

Xania

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I like your recipes, Scorpiotiger. I don't know what "Italian seasoning" is, so can you give me a breakdown of the ingredients? Is it something you buy as a branded product? I'm sure I can put it together, once I know what's in it.
We have about a gallon of olive oil, but I must whisper this quietly - it's Greek! I pefer the Iliada brand for taste and quality.
 

Arrowwind09

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Oct 16, 2007
I have a similar recipe but when I cook the mushrooms I sautee them in butter and soy sauce. I cook them until they are browned, almost a little cripsy - golden.

then I take the shrooms out and reconstitue the dripping in the pan that have almost dried up and add it to the sauce.

And yes! Fennel is the best secret ingredient to a sauce! I use it all the time.

My question is do the mushrooms, the common ones you purchase in the supper market have any significant medicinal value as the reshi and shitake do?
 

Boss

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I don't think necessarily the Earth might emit UV, but possibly reflect it.

If you think about it, a lot of UV for example is reflected by Windows, to my understanding, although a lot can get through, depnding on the kind of furnishings you have adorning your window.

The ground could also possibly do this, or maybe the soil has a UV saturation point, like a sponge, whereby the UV is dealt with by organisms, until UV in soil is lowered enough, to take more UV.

I kind of like the thought, that UV could be reflected onto the underside of edible Fungi like that, creating the effect of increased nutrient levels, via said method.

Were this possible, the amount of reflection or any, could also theoretically depend on the type of soil, I.E. Clay, Loamy, Peaty etc etc.
 

scorpiotiger

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I like your recipes, Scorpiotiger. I don't know what "Italian seasoning" is, so can you give me a breakdown of the ingredients? Is it something you buy as a branded product? I'm sure I can put it together, once I know what's in it.
We have about a gallon of olive oil, but I must whisper this quietly - it's Greek! I pefer the Iliada brand for taste and quality.
well, let's see.. I buy it already made... but I use it all the time. a lot of times, I will use italian seasong, onions, garlic, olive oily for vegetables, meat, .. just about anything tastes good with it.

the ingredients of my bought Italian Seasoning:
  • thyme
  • garlic
  • marjoram
  • onion
  • rosemary
  • oregano
  • basil
  • savory
  • sage
here is a recipe that sounds good:
http://www.recipezaar.com/82770
italian seasoning Recipe #82770

this replaces the store bought jars, and tastes so much better.
by chia
5 min | 5 min prep | 7 tbsp
Ingredients

3 tablespoons dried basil
3 tablespoons dried oregano
3 tablespoons dried parsley
1 tablespoon garlic powder
1 teaspoon onion powder
1 teaspoon dried thyme
1 teaspoon dried rosemary
1/4 teaspoon black pepper
1/4 teaspoon red pepper flakes

  1. mix all ingredients in a spice grinder.
  2. or put in a small bowl and crush with the back of a spoon.
  3. store in an airtight jar for up to 6 months.
 

scorpiotiger

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I have a similar recipe but when I cook the mushrooms I sautee them in butter and soy sauce. I cook them until they are browned, almost a little cripsy - golden.


actually.. this sounds good just by itself. forget the sauce!! :p

then I take the shrooms out and reconstitue the dripping in the pan that have almost dried up and add it to the sauce.

And yes! Fennel is the best secret ingredient to a sauce! I use it all the time.


I've had people say.. this is really good.. but what is it that is in it? I like it.. but I can't identify it. Then I will say.. like italian sausage? they will say, Yes!! but what is it? Then they are really surprised when I tell them.

but.. a little fennel goes a long way, imo.

another ingredient that you would not expect.. nutmeg in creamed spinach. goood.

My question is do the mushrooms, the common ones you purchase in the supper market have any significant medicinal value as the reshi and shitake do?
well, I found this on PubMed:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18287364
White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice.

Ren Z, Guo Z, Meydani SN, Wu D.
Nutritional Immunology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.


Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their antitumor property.



White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) (WBM) constitute 90% of the total mushrooms consumed in the United States; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well studied. Furthermore, little is known about WBM's immunologic effects. Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent antigen presenting cells and play a pivotal role in immune response by linking innate and adaptive immune responses.



In this study, we investigated the effect of in vitro supplementation with WBM on maturation of bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) of C57BL mice. BMDC were differentiated in the presence of whole mushroom concentrate at 50, 100, or 200 mg/L.



Results showed that mushroom supplementation dose dependently increased the expression of maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex-II. Consistent with the changes in the phenotypic markers, functional assay for DC maturation showed that mushroom supplementation decreased DC endocytosis and increased intracellular interleukin (IL)-12 levels.



Furthermore, using a syngeneic T cell activation model, we found that WBM-supplemented DC from BALB/c mice presented ovalbumin antigen to T cells from DO11.10 mice more efficiently as demonstrated by increased T cell proliferation and IL-2 production.



In conclusion, WBM promote DC maturation and enhance their antigen-presenting function. This effect may have potential in enhancing both innate and T cell-mediated immunity leading to a more efficient surveillance and defense mechanism against microbial invasion and tumor development.
so.. it sounds like they are good for the immune system.
 

scorpiotiger

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I don't think necessarily the Earth might emit UV, but possibly reflect it.

If you think about it, a lot of UV for example is reflected by Windows, to my understanding, although a lot can get through, depnding on the kind of furnishings you have adorning your window.

The ground could also possibly do this, or maybe the soil has a UV saturation point, like a sponge, whereby the UV is dealt with by organisms, until UV in soil is lowered enough, to take more UV.

I kind of like the thought, that UV could be reflected onto the underside of edible Fungi like that, creating the effect of increased nutrient levels, via said method.

Were this possible, the amount of reflection or any, could also theoretically depend on the type of soil, I.E. Clay, Loamy, Peaty etc etc.
interesting.. I found this:
UV SOLAR RADIATION – a basic review
Ground reflection
Part of the UV radiation that reaches the ground is absorbed by the Earth’s surface and part of it is reflected back to space. The amount of reflected radiation depends on the properties of the surface. Most natural surfaces such as grass, soil and water reflect less than about 10% of the incident UV radiation. Fresh snow, on the other hand, may reflect up to about 80% of the incident UV radiation. During spring and with a cloud-free sky the reflection of snow may increase the UV irradiance on inclined surfaces to summer values. This is important at higher altitudes and at higher latitudes. Sand may reflect about 25% of the UV radiation and can increase the UV exposure at the beach. Up to 95% of the UV radiation penetrates into the water and up to 50% penetrates to a depth of about 3 m (in clear ocean water).
 

Iggy Dalrymple

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Apr 9, 2006
I don't see how why mushrooms would be designed to catch reflected UV rather than direct rays. The normally only grow in dark or shady areas. If the gills were designed to catch UV, they would be on top.

Maybe direct rays are too strong and the cap is UV resistant, but the gills are to absorb the very weak reflected UV.
 

Arrowwind09

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Oct 16, 2007
:DHey ST thanks. I won't be having mushroom racist thoughts in the grocery store anymore. Those little guys will no longer be subject to my mushroom bigotry as they are moving to the forefront of equality:D
 

scorpiotiger

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:DHey ST thanks. I won't be having mushroom racist thoughts in the grocery store anymore. Those little guys will no longer be subject to my mushroom bigotry as they are moving to the forefront of equality:D
:lol: :lol: :lol:

hear hear! we should enjoy all colors and creeds of mushrooms. may they all, each and every single one, find a place on our plate... and in our home (and our yard, and the oil spills, and... well, watch the video :D )

Paul Stamos: 6 ways mushrooms can save the world

New Antiviral Drugs from mushrooms


Plug Spawn (might try this for a tree stump in my front yard)
 

scorpiotiger

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this makes me think of that Clint Eastwood movie, "The Beguiled". good movie. Early Clint Eastwood.

what you say is true, Boss.. but there have been uses found for poisonous substances. sometimes a little of something can be healing, where a lot is deadly.

so.. even if we can't eat them, it doesn't mean they don't have worth!!!
 

Boss

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I suppose so.

A possibly related incidence would be CowPox to obliterate Smallpox. Or maybe that's not quite along the same lines.

The only I can recall Poisons having benefit, is with Poison Arrow Frogs. The Poison is added to blow dart tips, and natives can use it to kill animals during hunting.
 

Arrowwind09

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Joined
Oct 16, 2007
Boss, poisonous substances are the basis for most forms of medicine. Some of the most poisonous plants and minerals can be the most powerful healers when judiciously applied in the corrects dosage and potency. Almost anything is toxic if applied incorrectly, then again most anything can induce a healing response if applied correctly to the correctly selected case.

It is the absolute basis of the use of homeopathy.
To get an overview of homeopathy works see:
http://www.healthsalon.org/80/homeopathy-explained-part-one/
http://www.healthsalon.org/92/homeopathy-explained-part-two/
 

Boss

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Well when you put it like that, it does provide clarity to things.

I suppose you could usethe analagy, for everything, there is an equal and opposite reaction, so for every potential poison, there may be a potental treatmet or cure.
 

Xania

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Apr 4, 2006
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I don't know how long that post had been here because I was away from home all morning, but he won't trouble us again!
 

pinballdoctor

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Oct 1, 2007
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Saskatchewan Canada
I used to have my doubts concerning mushrooms. After all, they are a fungus, right?
Antibiotics are made from fungus, and fungus seems to cause or aid many diseases.
Then I did some research on mushrooms, and discovered they are a superfood. They are packed with nutrients, and are very good antioxidant. They can kill cancer cells, and that is only the beginning. Mushrooms lightly fried in coconut oil is very good, as well as raw slices in a salad.
As far as vitamin D is concerned, 1000 I.U. per day is low. That should be doubled, and during the winter months, 2000 I.U. in morning and another 2000 I.U. (D3) before bed. That would be more beneficial, without the worry of overdosing.
 


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