In paragraph 2.1 of the paper above they say
Fat cells secrete the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4). TNFα has been shown to promote breast cancer growth through the activation of several intracellular molecular pathways, including MAPK, kappa B (NF-kappa B), and the PI3-K/Akt pathway
Readers may not be aware Vitamin D3 works as an antiflammatory agent inhibiting production of TNFα with the most powerful inhibition of inflammation
occurring at 50 ng/ml. ~125nmol/l.
A recent paper reporting on 25(OH)D levels in hunger~gatherer peoples in East Africa
showed natural 25(OH)D levels reach equilibrium around that level.
UK readers can now get 5000iu vit D3 off Amazon UK for less than £10 360 capsules and CityAssays Birmingham NHS Path lab Offer postal 25(OH)D tests
for £25 (less if you bulk buy and share with friends)
Allow 3 months using 5000iu/daily before retesting 25(OH)D then adjust dose 1000iu more if 25nmol/l or more below target and 1000iu/d less if 25nmol/l or more above target.
Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein N Short-term omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (3 g/day for eight weeks) can decrease the serum levels
of TNF-α and IL-2 in diabetic patients